Francesco Guardi u Kraljevoj Sutjesci

U zbirci starijih slika franjevačkoga samostana u Kraljevoj Sutjesci nalazi se i jedna Francesca Guardija (Venecija, 1712. – 1793.), rokoko slikara i jednoga od najpoznatijih venecijanskih vedutista, Bogorodica s Djetetom i sv. Antom Padovanskim (ulje na platnu, 54 x 43 cm, oko 1775., ne poslije).

Piše: Marko Karamatić

Francesco Guardi je mlađi brat Gian Antonija (1699. – 1760.) s čijom smo se slikom Povratak Svete Obitelji iz hrama i sv. Anto Padovanski, jednom od „najljepših slika Bosne i Hercegovine” (Sanja Cvetnić), već upoznali u Svjetlu riječi (br. 411/2017).

Sliku Francesca Guardija je 1966. godine „otkrio” i atribuirao povjesničar umjetnosti Grgo Gamulin (1910. – 1997.) i objavio u časopisu Arte Veneta 1972., o čemu piše u svom prilogu Naknadna recenzija – prijedlozi za rješenja (Radovi Instituta za povijest umjetnosti, 14/1990, str. 30–50). Slikom se oduševio već na prvi pogled. Kad ju je našao „na slavnome mjestu: u franjevačkom samostanu Kraljeva Sutjeska u kanjonu podno kobnog Bobovca”, veli da je ostao „bez daha” pred ljepotom „Bogorodice s Djetetom i sv. Antom Padovanskim” (43).

Slika je malo „remek djelo”. Ali nije mu bilo svejedno kad je na njezinoj lijevoj strani, na stupu iza Bogorodičina lika, vidio natpis krupnim slovima: „DOBAVI O. F. / GRGO IZ / VAREŠA / 1775.” Sliku je, naime, nabavio fra Grgo Ilijić Varešanin (1736. – 1813.), tada tajnik provincije Bosne Srebrene, kasnije provincijal i naslovni biskup ruspenski i apostolski vikar, koji je dao da se vidljivo naznači njegovo ime kao zaslužnoga dobavljača – i to baš na samoj slici. Ništa neobično za fra Grgu koji je bio osebujan lik, ali i s istančanim osjećajem za lijepo! Sretna je okolnost što je u natpisu navedena godina nabave koja olakšava datiranje ne samo te slike nego i niza drugih njoj stilski bliskih. Gamulin nadalje ističe da ih je sve u Zagrebu iznenadila „velebna izložba franjevaca” (1988./89.), jer „za mnoga lijepa slikarska djela nismo ni znali” (39). Ali sa žaljenjem konstatira da je i ova Guardijeva slika, „to lijepo i slavno djelo (iz samostana još slavnijeg)”, na izložbi u Muzejskom prostoru (danas Klovićevi dvori) gurnuta u sporednu prostoriju i zametena među „osrednjim i slabim” slikarskim djelima te da se bez utemeljenoga objašnjenja u Katalogu izložbe izražava rezerva o autorstvu koje je već odavno u znanstvenoj literaturi riješeno i od talijanskih povjesničara umjetnosti opće prihvaćeno. U Katalogu nije navedena ni zagrebačka ni talijanska bibliografija!

Foto: Alen Jehja

Gamulin ističe pogodni trenutak izlaska slike u stručnu javnost. „Došla je, dakle, naša slika u pravo vrijeme, ušla u već (recimo) zatvorenu kontroverzu i potvrdila tezu o Francescu ‘figuristi’” koji je inače slovio ponajprije kao slikar venecijanskih veduta. Ona se u potpunosti složila „s Bogorodicom iz zbirke Tecchio u Milanu” koja ima Guardijev potpis. „Bila je u uredništvu ‘Arte Veneta’ dočekana kao otkriće”, a naznačenom godinom 1775., kad je „dobavio” fra Grgo iz Vareša, „potvrdila je i datiranje Bogorodice Tecchio” iz milanske zbirke (43).

Ovdje se nameće i pitanje je li riječ o kupnji ili pak narudžbi slike u Veneciji, u gradu s kojim su bosanski franjevci u tursko doba imali dobru komunikaciju: tamo su išli studirati, tiskati svoje knjige, priskrbiti liturgijske predmete, kupovati knjige, nabaviti ili naručiti neku sliku!? Stjepan Dragojlović je prvi znani naručitelj slika u Bosni Srebrenoj. Od njega su u Kraljevoj Sutjesci sačuvane dvije: jedna iz 1597. i druga iz 1621. sa zapisom njegova imena kao naručitelja (o tome: SR, 409/2017). U slučaju slike Bogorodica s djetetom i sv. Antom Padovanskim, koju „dobavi” fra Grgo Ilijić, nema izravne naznake o narudžbi. No s obzirom da je na slici pridodan i lik franjevačkoga sveca sv. Ante Padovanskoga, fra Grgo je „vjerojatnije naručitelj slike Francesca Guardija nego samo kupac”. On se tako stoljeće i pol nakon Stjepana Dragojlovića „javlja kao prvi poznati naručitelj u Bosni Srebrenoj čije je djelo očuvano” (Sanja Cvetnić, Barokni defter, Zagreb 2011, 89).

O likovno-umjetničkom značaju slike Sanja Cvetnić piše: „Tiha intima koju je Guardi uspio ostvariti zatvorenošću skupine i blagim gestama kojima se protagonisti dodiruju ili međusobno iskazuju naklonost, uspjela je spasiti ovaj prizor duge ikonografske povijesti […] od umora ili ‘potrošenosti’ pa je uvjerljiva čak i zaslađena rokoko emotivnost, tipična za razdoblje” (91). Ali ukazuje i na „određenu teškoću u oblikovanju velikih masa” vidljivu u likovnom rješenju Gospina plašta!

Što drugo na kraju zaželjeti negoli „Dobra ti kob, mala sliko!” – kako je poručila autorica na odlasku iz Kraljeve Sutjeske, sa željom da će tu najistočniju Guardijevu narudžbu znati cijeniti svi baštinici, ne samo vlasnici franjevci, i da će uvijek tražiti najbolje restauratore.

Nadajmo se da će i sutješki i petrićevački Guardi izbjeći mogućim zamkama u budućnosti uz brižnu pasku baštinika Bosne Srebrene koji su ih umjeli sačuvati i u olovnim vremenima minulih stoljeća.

Izvor: Svjetlo riječi 

 

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